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MLA

Helpful resources

General rules

  • Title the list of sources at the end of your paper “Works Cited.”
  • Arrange the list alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.
  • Double space all lines.
  • For citations that take up more than one line, use a hanging indent of 0.5 inches for subsequent lines.
  • If no publication date is available, use n.d.; if no publisher is named, use n.p.; if no pagination is given, use n.pag.

Book

  • Last name, First name. Book Title. City of Publication, Publisher, Date.
  • From Purdue OWL: City of Publication should only be used if the book was published before 1900, if the publisher has offices in more than one country, or if the publisher is unknown in North America.

Single author

  • Lane, Libbie. College Writing. Doubleday, 2003.

Two authors

  • Goetz, Stewart, and Charles Taliaferro. A Brief History of the Soul. Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

Three or more authors

  • Hiassen, Carl, et al. Naked Came the Manatee. Ballantine Books, 1998.

Anthology or collection of essays/stories

  • Morgan, Bill, and David Stanford, editors. Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg: The Letters. Penguin, 2011.

Book chapter

  • Toft, Monica Duffy. “Religion, Rationality, and Violence.” Religion and International Relations Theory, edited by Jack Snyder. Columbia University Press, 2011. 115-140.

Journal article

  • Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pages.
  • Print journal: Kowalewski, Michael. “Writing in Place: The New American Regionalism.” American Literary History, vol. 6, no.1, 1994, pp. 171-183.
  • From a database/online: Kowalewski, Michael. “Writing in Place: The New American Regionalism.” American Literary History, vol. 6, no.1, 1994, pp. 171-183. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/489906.
  • If using an article from an online database, such as JSTOR or ProQuest, include the DOI (if available) or permanent/stable URL at the end.

Website

  • Author. “Title.” Title of website, Publication Date (if available), URL/DOI. Date of Access (if applicable).
  • Clark, Josh. “Who won the Cold War?.” HowStuffWorks, 4 May 2021, www.history.howstuffworks.com/history-vs-myth/who-won-cold-war.htm. Accessed 11 Oct. 2021.
  • From Purdue OWL: MLA only requires the www. address, so eliminate all https:// when citing URLs.

In-text citations

  • Use parenthetical references for in-text citations, most often placed at the end of the sentence. The basic format is the author’s last name followed by the page(s) you are referencing, if applicable, although here are a few examples:
    • The cow’s lunar gambol made her a literary hero (Viers 98).
    • According to Viers, the cow’s lunar gambol made her a literary hero (98).
    • Scholars argue that “the cow’s lunar gambol conveyed upon her the status of literary hero” (Viers 98).

Chicago

Helpful resources

General rules

  • Title the list of sources at the end of your paper “Bibliography.”
  • Arrange the list alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.
  • For citations that take up more than one line, use a hanging indent of 0.5 inches for subsequent lines.
  • The examples on this page follow Chicago’s notes and bibliography system. If your professor prefers the author-date system, see one of the sources listed above for examples.

Book

Bibliography

  • Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.

Footnote/endnote

  1. First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.
  2. Last name, Title of Book, page number.

One author

Bibliography

  • Lane, Libbie. College Writing. New York: Doubleday, 2003.

Notes

  1. Libbie Lane, College Writing (New York: Doubleday, 2003), 99-100.
  2. Lane, College Writing, 99-100.

Two or more authors

  • List authors in the order they appear.

Bibliography

  • Goetz, Stewart, and Charles Taliaferro. A Brief History of the Soul. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

Notes

  1. Stewart Goetz and Charles Taliaferro, A Brief History of the Soul (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011), 71.
  2. Goetz and Taliaferro, A Brief History of the Soul, 71.

Book with editor

Bibliography

  • Morgan, Bill, and David Stanford, eds. Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg: The Letters. New York: Penguin, 2011.

Notes

  1. Bill Morgan and David Stanford, eds., Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg: The Letters (New York: Penguin, 2011), 326-27.
  2. Morgan and Stanford, Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, 326-27.

Book chapter

Bibliography

  • Toft, Monica Duffy. “Religion, Rationality, and Violence.” In Religion and International Relations Theory, edited by Jack Snyder, 115-40. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.

Notes

  1. Monica Duffy Toft, “Religion, Rationality, and Violence,” in Religion and International Relations Theoryed. Jack Snyder (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011), 123.
  2. Toft, “Religion, Rationality, and Violence,” 123.

Journal article

Bibliography

  • Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Title vol., issue (pub. year): pages. Access Date. URL/DOI.
  • Kowalewski, Michael. “Writing in Place: The New American Regionalism.” American Literary History 6no. 1 (1994)171-83. http://www.jstor.org/stable/489906.

Footnote/endnote

1. Name, “Article Title,” Journal Title vol., issue (pub. year): pages, access date, URL/DOI.

  1. Michael Kowalewski, “Writing in Place: The New American Regionalism,” American Literary History 6, no. 1 (1994)171-83, http://www.jstor.org/stable/489906.
  2. Kowalewski, “Writing in Place,” 171.

Website

Bibliography

  • Lastname, Firstname (if available). “Title of Web Page.” Name of Website. Publishing organization, publication or revision date if available. Access date if no other date is available. URL.
  • Clark, Josh. “Who won the Cold War?” HowStuffWorks. Last modified May 4, 2021. https://history.howstuffworks.com/history-vs-myth/who-won-cold-war.htm

Notes

  1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Name of Website, Publishing Organization, publication or revision date if available, access date if no other date is available, URL.

1. Josh Clark, “Who won the Cold War?,” HowStuffWorks, last modified May 4, 2021, https://history.howstuffworks.com/history-vs-myth/who-won-cold-war.htm

2. Clark, “Cold War.”

In-text citations

  • When using Chicago Style you will have numbered footnotes or endnotes as well as a bibliography.
  • The first time you cite a particular source, include the full citation in the footnotes/endnotes. For subsequent references, use just the author’s last name, a short form of the title, and the page or pages cited.
  • When you have two consecutive notes from the same source, you may use ibid (meaning “in the same place”) in place of the duplicated information:

1. Michael Kowalewski, “Writing in Place: The New American Regionalism,” American Literary History 6, no. 1 (1994)171-83, http://www.jstor.org/stable/489906.
2. Kowalewski, “Writing in Place,” 178.
3. Ibid., 173.

APA

Helpful resources

General rules

  • Title the list of sources at the end of your paper “Reference List.”
  • Arrange the list alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.
  • Double space all lines.
  • For citations that take up more than one line, use a hanging indent of 0.5 inches for subsequent lines.
  • For works with no author, begin the citation with the title, followed by the date in parentheses.

Authors

  • Pertaining to listing authors’ names for all types of works, whether books or journal articles or something else.

Single author

  • Last name, First Initial. (Publication year). Title of work: Capital letter for subtitle. Publisher Name.

Two to twenty authors

  • Separate author names with a comma and use an ampersand before the last author’s name.
  • Billson, J. M., & Mancini, K. (2007). Inuit women: Their powerful spirit in a century of change. Rowman & Littlefield.

Books

  • Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name.

Single author

  • Lane, L. (2003). College writing. Doubleday.

Book with editor

  • Morgan, B., & Stanford, D. (Eds.). (2011). Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg: the letters. Penguin.

Book chapter

  • Toft, M. D. (2011). Religion, rationality, and violence. In J. Snyder (Ed.), Religion and international relations theory (pp. 115-140). Columbia University Press.

Journal article

  • Author, A. A., & Author B. B. (Publication Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. DOI (or URL if DOI isn’t available)

Print journal

  • Kowalewski, M. (1994). Writing in place: the new American regionalism. American Literary History, 6(1)171-183.

From an online database

  • Kowalewski, M. (1994). Writing in place: the new American regionalism. American Literary History, 6(1)171-183. https://www.jstor.org/stable/489906

Website

  • Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL
  • Mayo Clinic Staff. (2021, January 20). Type 2 diabetes. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20351193
  • If there is no publication date available, use n.d.

In-text citations

  • Use parenthetical references for in-text citations. The basic format is the author’s last name followed by the date of publication:
    • The cow’s lunar gambol made her a literary hero (Viers, 2001).
  • If the author’s name is already in the sentence, include only the date:
    • According to Viers (2001), the cow’s…
  • For direct quotes, include the page number immediately after the end of the quote:
    • The cow is a “plump and ungainly” (Viers, 2001, p. 98) animal.
  • For works with two authors, include both names every time:
    • (Goetz & Taliaferro, 2011)
  • For works with three or more authors, include the first author followed by et al.:
    • (Hiassen et al., 1998)

CSE

Helpful resources

General rules

  • Title the list of sources at the end of your paper “References” or “Cited References.”
  • Arrange the list alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.
  • The examples on this page use CSE’s name-year citation system. If your professor prefers a different CSE system, see one of the sources listed above for examples.

Book

  • Last Name First Initial. Year. Title with subsequent words lowercase. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent.

Single author

  • Lane L. 2003. College writing. New York (NY): Doubleday.

Two to ten authors

  • Include the names of all authors.
  • Goetz S, Taliaferro C. 2011. A brief history of the soul. Chichester (England): Wiley-Blackwell.

Book chapter

Toft MD. 2011. Religion, rationality, and violence. In: Snyder J, editor. Religion and international relations theoryNew York (NY): Columbia University Press. p. 115-140.

Journal article

  • For articles with multiple authors, use the same guidelines given for books.
  • CSE style uses abbreviations for journal titles.

Print version

  • Kowalewski M. 1994. Writing in place: the new American regionalism. Am Lit Hist. 6(1):171-183.

From an online database

  • Kowalewski M. 1994. Writing in place: the new American regionalism. Am Lit Hist [Internet]. [cited 2011 16 December];6(1):171-183. Available from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/489906

Website

  • Nutrition facts: an interactive guide to food labels. [Internet]. 2010 January 5. Rochester (MN): Mayo Clinic; [cited 2011 December 16]. Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/nutrition-facts/NU00293

In-text citations

  • The examples on this page follow CSE’s name-year citation system, which uses parenthetical references for in-text citations. The basic format is the author’s last name followed by the date of publication:
    • The cow’s lunar gambol made her a literary hero (Viers 2001).
  • For works with two authors, include both names:
    • (Goetz and Taliaferro 2011)
  • For works with three or more authors, list the first author followed by et al.:
    • (Hiassen et al. 1998)

Schumacher, Karlyn

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