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MLA

Helpful resources

General rules

  • Title the list of sources at the end of your paper “Works Cited.”
  • Arrange the list alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.
  • Double space all lines.
  • For citations that take up more than one line, use a hanging indent for subsequent lines.
  • If no publication date is available, use n.d.; if no publisher is named, use n.p.; if no pagination is given, use n.pag.

Book

  • Last name, First name. Book Title. City of Publication***, Publisher, Date.
    • ***From Purdue OWL: City of Publication should only be used if the book was published before 1900, if the publisher has offices in more than one country, or if the publisher is unknown in North America.

Single author

  • Kuile, Casper ter. The Power of Ritual: Turning Everyday Activities into Soulful Practices. HarperOne, 2020.

Two authors

  • Berry, Daina Ramey, and Kali N. Gross. A Black Women’s History of the United States. Beacon Press, 2020.

Three or more authors

  • Alonso Bejarano, Carolina, et al. Decolonizing Ethnography: Undocumented Immigrants and New Directions in Social Science. Duke University Press, 2019.

Anthology or collection of essays/stories

  • González, Jennifer A., et al., editors. Chicano and Chicana Art: A Critical Anthology. Duke University Press, 2019.

Book chapter

  • Saunders, Joe. “Dark Advertising and the Democratic Process.” Big Data and Democracy, edited by Kevin Macnish and Jai Galliott, Edinburgh University Press, 2020, pp. 73-88.

Journal article

  • Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pages.

Print journal

  • Oakey, Christopher. “Prose Poetry and Purposiveness in Anne Boyer’s Garments Against Women.” Contemporary Literature, vol. 61, no.2, 2020, pp. 194-220.

From a database/online

  • If using an article from an online database, such as JSTOR or ProQuest, include the DOI (if available) or permanent/stable URL at the end.
  • Oakey, Christopher. “Prose Poetry and Purposiveness in Anne Boyer’s Garments Against Women.” Contemporary Literature, vol. 61, no.2, 2020, pp. 194-220. Humanities International Complete, http://dx.doi.org/10.3368/cl.61.2.194

Website

  • Author. “Title.” Title of website, Publication Date (if available), URL/DOI. Date of Access (if applicable).
  • From Purdue OWL: MLA only requires the www. address, so eliminate all https:// when citing URLs.
    • Clark, Josh. “Who won the Cold War?.” HowStuffWorks, 4 May 2021, www.history.howstuffworks.com/history-vs-myth/who-won-cold-war.htm. Accessed 11 Oct. 2021.

In-text citations

  • Use parenthetical references for in-text citations, most often placed at the end of the sentence. The basic format is the author’s last name followed by the page(s) you are referencing, if applicable, although here are a few examples:
    • The cow’s lunar gambol made her a literary hero (Viers 98).
    • According to Viers, the cow’s lunar gambol made her a literary hero (98).
    • Scholars argue that “the cow’s lunar gambol conveyed upon her the status of literary hero” (Viers 98).

Chicago

Helpful resources

General rules

  • Title the list of sources at the end of your paper “Bibliography.”
  • Arrange the list alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.
  • For citations that take up more than one line, use a hanging indent of 0.5 inches for subsequent lines.
  • The examples on this page follow Chicago’s notes and bibliography system. If your professor prefers the author-date system, see one of the sources listed above for examples.

Book

Bibliography

  • Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.

Footnote/endnote

  1. First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.
  2. Last name, Title of Book, page number.

One author

Bibliography

  • Kuile, Casper ter. The Power of Ritual: Turning Everyday Activities into Soulful Practices. New York: HarperOne, 2020.

Notes

  1. Casper ter Kuile, The Power of Ritual (New York: HarperOne, 2020), 99-100.
  2. Kuile, The Power of Ritual, 99-100.

Two or more authors

  • List authors in the order they appear.

Bibliography

  • Berry, Daina Ramey, and Kali N. Gross. A Black Women’s History of the United States. Boston: Beacon Press, 2020.

Notes

  1. Daina Ramey Berry and Kali N. Gross, A Black Women’s History of the United States (Boston: Beacon Press, 2020), 71.
  2. Berry and Gross, A Black Women’s History of the United States, 71.

Book with editor

Bibliography

  • González, Jennifer A., C. Ondine Chavoya, Chona A. Noriega, and Terecita Romo, eds. Chicano and Chicana Art: A Critical Anthology. Durham: Duke University Press, 2019.

Notes

  1. Jennifer A. González, et al., eds. Chicano and Chicana Art: A Critical Anthology (Durham: Duke University Press, 2019), 100-105.
  2. González, et al., Chicano and Chicana Art, 110-112.

Book chapter

Bibliography

  • Saunders, Joe. “Dark Advertising and the Democratic Process.” In Big Data and Democracy, edited by Kevin Macnish and Jai Galliott, 73-88. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2020.

Notes

  1. Joe Saunders, “Dark Advertising and the Democratic Process,” in Big Data and Democracyeds. Kevin Macnish and Jai Galliott (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2020), 82.
  2. Saunders, “Dark Advertising and the Democratic Process,” 79.

Journal article

Bibliography

  • Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Title vol., issue (pub. year): pages. URL/DOI.
    • Oakey, Christopher. “Prose Poetry and Purposiveness in Anne Boyer’s Garments Against Women.” Contemporary Literature 61, no. 2 (2020): 194-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.3368/cl.61.2.194.

Footnote/endnote

1. Name, “Article Title,” Journal Title vol., issue (pub. year): pages, access date, URL/DOI.

  1. Christopher Oakey, “Prose Poetry and Purposiveness in Anne Boyer’s Garments Against Women,” Contemporary Literature 61, no. 2 (2020): 194-220, http://dx.doi.org/10.3368/cl.61.2.194.
  2. Oakey, “Prose Poetry and Purposiveness,” 200.

Website

Bibliography

  • Lastname, Firstname (if available). “Title of Web Page.” Name of Website. Publishing organization, publication or revision date if available. Access date if no other date is available. URL.
    • Clark, Josh. “Who won the Cold War?” HowStuffWorks. Last modified May 4, 2021. https://history.howstuffworks.com/history-vs-myth/who-won-cold-war.htm

Notes

  1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Name of Website, Publishing Organization, publication or revision date if available, access date if no other date is available, URL.

1. Josh Clark, “Who won the Cold War?,” HowStuffWorks, last modified May 4, 2021, https://history.howstuffworks.com/history-vs-myth/who-won-cold-war.htm

2. Clark, “Cold War.”

In-text citations

  • When using Chicago Style you will have numbered footnotes or endnotes as well as a bibliography.
  • The first time you cite a particular source, include the full citation in the footnotes/endnotes. For subsequent references, use just the author’s last name, a short form of the title, and the page or pages cited.
  • When you have two consecutive notes from the same source, you may use ibid (meaning “in the same place”) in place of the duplicated information:
  1. Christopher Oakey, “Prose Poetry and Purposiveness in Anne Boyer’s Garments Against Women,” Contemporary Literature 61, no. 2 (2020): 194-220, http://dx.doi.org/10.3368/cl.61.2.194.
  2. Oakey, “Prose Poetry and Purposiveness,” 194.
  3. Ibid., 198.

APA

Helpful resources

General rules

  • Title the list of sources at the end of your paper “Reference List.”
  • Arrange the list alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.
  • Double space all lines.
  • For citations that take up more than one line, use a hanging indent of 0.5 inches for subsequent lines.
  • For works with no author, begin the citation with the title, followed by the date in parentheses.

Authors

Single author

  • Last name, First Initial. (Publication year). Title of work: Capital letter for subtitle. Publisher Name.

Two to twenty authors

  • Separate author names with a comma and use an ampersand before the last author’s name.
    • Billson, J. M., & Mancini, K. (2007). Inuit women: Their powerful spirit in a century of change. Rowman & Littlefield.

Books

  • Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name.

Single author

  • Kuile, C. T. (2020). The power of ritual: Turning everyday activities into soulful practices. HarperOne.

Book with editor

  • Macnish, K., & Galliott, J. (Eds.). (2020). Big data and democracy. Edinburgh University Press.

Book chapter

  • Saunders, J. (2020). Dark advertising and the democratic process. In K. Macnish & J. Galliott (Eds.), Big data and democracy (pp. 73-88). Edinburgh University Press.

Journal article

  • Author, A. A., & Author B. B. (Publication Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. DOI (or URL if DOI isn’t available)

Print journal

  • Oakey, C. (2020). Prose poetry and purposiveness in Anne Boyer’s Garments against women. Contemporary Literature, 61(2), 194-220. 

From an online database

  • Oakey, C. (2020). Prose poetry and purposiveness in Anne Boyer’s Garments against women. Contemporary Literature, 61(2), 194-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.3368/cl.61.2.194.

Website

  • Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL
    • Mayo Clinic Staff. (2021, January 20). Type 2 diabetes. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20351193
  • If there is no publication date available, use n.d.

In-text citations

  • Use parenthetical references for in-text citations. The basic format is the author’s last name followed by the date of publication:
    • The cow’s lunar gambol made her a literary hero (Viers, 2001).
  • If the author’s name is already in the sentence, include only the date:
    • According to Viers (2001), the cow’s…
  • For direct quotes, include the page number immediately after the end of the quote:
    • The cow is a “plump and ungainly” (Viers, 2001, p. 98) animal.
  • For works with two authors, include both names every time:
    • (Goetz & Taliaferro, 2011)
  • For works with three or more authors, include the first author followed by et al.:
    • (Hiassen et al., 1998)

CSE

Helpful resources

General rules

  • Title the list of sources at the end of your paper “References” or “Cited References.”
  • Arrange the list alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.
  • The examples on this page use CSE’s name-year citation system. If your professor prefers a different CSE system, see one of the sources listed above for examples.

Book

  • Last Name First Initial. Year. Title with subsequent words lowercase. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent.

Single author

  • Kuile, CT. 2020. The power of ritual: Turning everyday activities into soulful practices. New York (NY): HarperOne.

Two to ten authors

  • Include the names of all authors.
  • Berry, DR, Gross, KN. 2020. A Black women’s history of the United States. Boston (MA): Beacon Press.

Book chapter

  • Saunders, J. 2020. Dark advertising and the democratic process. In: Macnish, K., Galliott, J., editors. Big data and democracyEdinburgh (United Kingdom): Edinburgh University Press. p. 73-88.

Journal article

  • For articles with multiple authors, use the same guidelines given for books.
  • CSE style uses abbreviations for journal titles.

Print version

  • Kowalewski M. 1994. Writing in place: the new American regionalism. Am Lit Hist. 6(1):171-183.

From an online database

  • Kowalewski M. 1994. Writing in place: the new American regionalism. Am Lit Hist[accessed 2011 16 December];6(1):171-183. http://www.jstor.org/stable/489906

Website

  • Nutrition facts: an interactive guide to food labels. 2010 January 5. Mayo Clinic. [accessed 2011 December 16]. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/nutrition-facts/NU00293

In-text citations

  • The examples on this page follow CSE’s name-year citation system, which uses parenthetical references for in-text citations. The basic format is the author’s last name followed by the date of publication:
    • The cow’s lunar gambol made her a literary hero (Viers 2001).
  • For works with two authors, include both names:
    • (Goetz and Taliaferro 2011)
  • For works with three or more authors, list the first author followed by et al.:
    • (Hiassen et al. 1998)

Ecology

Helpful resources

Much of the Ecology format section of this citation guide is adapted from the following research guides: Ecology (University of Puget Sound) and Ecology Format (Sacramento State).

General rules

  • Title the list of sources at the end of your paper “Literature Cited”
  • Arrange your Literature Cited alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author
  • If you have more than one citation by the same author in your Literature Cited section, arrange chronologically
  • Use a hanging indent of 0.5 inches for subsequent lines for citations that take up more than one line
  • Italicize genus and species names

Book

  • Last Name, First Name Initial. Second Initial. Year of Publication. Book title. Publisher’s name, City, State, Country.

Single author

  • Kuile, C. T. 2020. The power of ritual: turning everyday activities into soulful practices. HarperOne, New York, New York, USA.

Two authors

  • Berry, D. R., and K. N. Gross. 2020. A Black women’s history of the United States. Beacon Press, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Book chapter

  • Last name of chapter author, First initial. Second initial. Year of publication. Chapter title. Pages first-last in First initial. Second initial. Last name of editor, and First initial, Second initial. Last name of next editor, editors. Book title. Publisher, City, State, Country.
    • Saunders, J. 2020. Dark advertising and the democratic process. Pages 73-88 in K. Macnish and J. Galliott, editors. Big data and democracy. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Journal article

  • Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. Year of publication. Article title. Journal Title. Volume: page range.
    • Perry, C. J., L. Baciadonna, and L. Chittka. 2016. Unexpected rewards induce dopamine-dependent positive emotion-like state changes in bumblebees. Science. 353:1529-1531.

Website

It is not recommended to cite non peer-reviewed websites. See the following guidance from the journal Ecology: “The Literature Cited section of a paper may refer only to permanently archived material…Because Internet sources typically have a short half-life, they may not be included in Literature Cited sections unless there is reasonable evidence of permanency (e.g., Ecological Archives). As a general rule, any publication that has an ISSN or ISBN is acceptable, but should be referenced by name (the URL may be added, but is not essential).

Citing websites with no individual author

  • In text:
    • Mood disorders include mental illnesses that impact a person’s persistent emotional state and include disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder, among others (National Institute of Mental Health n.d.).
  • Reference list:

In-text citations

  • Use parenthetical references for in-text citations. The basic format is the author’s last name followed by publication date: 
    • The cow’s lunar gambol made her a literary hero (Viers 2001). 
  • When citing multiple authors, separate citations by comma
    • (Saunders 2020, Ter Kuile 2020, Berry and Gross 2020)
  • To cite a source with three or more authors, use only the first author’s last name followed by et al. 
    • (Perry et al. 2016)
  • Do not include page numbers in in-text citations

Schumacher, Karlyn

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